Table of Contents
- Welcome and Introduction
- Global Internet Resource Governance
- Open Discussion
MR. DAVIS: All right, we're going to get started here. If I could ask everybody to take their seats. Good morning, everybody.
AUDIENCE: Good morning.
MR. DAVIS: Try that one more time. Good morning everybody.
AUDIENCE: Good morning!
MR. DAVIS: Welcome. Welcome to the ARIN Caribbean sector meeting here in beautiful Barbados. Couldn't be a better time of the year for this. We have two days of great activity for everybody. So I want to get started off with first with who's here. So from our six member Board of trustees we have John Curran, Scott Bradner in the back, Tim Denton, we know he's in the area. I don't see him right now but he's here as well. And the rest of the Board is back doing their day jobs. From the Advisory Council, ARIN's 15 member advisory council, we have Dan Alexander. Where is Dan? There's Dan. Paul Anderson, Bill Darte, and John Sweeting, the AC chair. Not present here today are the members of the NRO Number Council; Marty Hannigan, Louie Lee, and Jason Schiller. They're like some of the AC Board members doing their jobs in various locations throughout the world and today and tomorrow. So who is here from ARIN staff. Myself. I'm Nate Davis, Chief Operating Officer with ARIN. And I'd like to recognize who just walked into the room, Tim Denton. Tim, if you could stand and wave your hand. We also have from ARIN staff Cathy Hanley, back at the back table, and Richard Jimmerson in the back, Mark Kosters, Leslie Nobile, Einar Bohlin, Dé Harvey, and Pete Toscano, back in the back.
We also have we're pleased to be joined by the Caribbean Telecommunications Union, specifically Bernadette Lewis, Bevil Wooding and Nigel Cassimire. During the course of the meeting silence your cell phones, laptops and pagers so they don't disrupt the meeting itself, and also as a courtesy to other participants here.
So we have a number of things over the next two days. Some of the active policy proposals that will be discussed are the 2008-7 WHOIS integrity proposals and Community Network IPv6 Allocation(2008-3) which is of interest here in the Caribbean region; the IPv4 Recovery Fund and Allocation of IPv4 Blocks to Regional Internet Registries and this is a global policy.
So if you have not already, back on the back table is an agenda for the next two days. I encourage everybody to pick that up if they haven't already. This morning's discussions will largely be focused around Internet governance and also including resource reporting and this afternoon the CTU will lead us into discussion as well as some of the ARIN staff through IPv6 transition, and the session will end at 5:00. We have a reception tonight. I wanted to make sure everyone was aware of that. Up on the upper deck I believe it's called, which is just to the south end of the hotel. And that begins at 7:00. We have wine, beer and hors d'oeuvres during that time and that will go from seven to nine and we welcome everybody to join us there at that time.
Tomorrow we'll begin discussions on some of the policies I alluded to earlier, as well as Bobby Flaim will lead a discussion through the ARIN Government working group.
I'd like to thank our sponsors, Sunbeach. I'd like to give them a little round of applause.
MR. DAVIS: And then without further ado, I'd like to begin the meeting. And our first presentation is from Richard Jimmerson. As we go through the course of the meeting I would encourage anybody who speaks at the mic to please speak clearly and loudly. We are having the meeting transcribed. We also have remote participants who are able to actually send in questions and participate in the meeting remotely.
So if you do speak at the mic, please speak clearly and loudly enough that the transcriptionist can hear us as well as remote participants. Alright, Richard.
MR. JIMMERSON: I'll go ahead and get these slide decks set up. I'm going to start the presentations off this morning I'll talk a little bit about the Internet governance model how Internet numbers are managed and distributed inside the regions and how everyone here participates in that process.
So let me get this slide going. So there are five regional Internet registries. ARIN is one of the regional Internet registries. The RIRs are there to manage and distribute the Internet number resources worldwide. The five regions and the areas where we operate, you can see here on this map, ARIN is the Caribbean, from North Atlantic Islands, United States and Canada. We also have LACNIC that manages South American and parts of the Caribbean and RIPE NCC for all of Europe, portions of Middle East and Asia and Greenland, AFriNIC for the continent of Africa and APNIC for the Asia Pacific region. These are the distributions for the governance of the resource we have. The ICANN, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ,they hold a contract to manage a function called the IANA, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. They manage the global IT address space pool. What they do with that pool they allocate that down to the regional Internet registries. The RIRs manage the regional IP address pool . We work with the communities inside of our region to create the policies that are used that we will use as staff to distribute the resource back out to you.
And then we have Internet service providers and enterprise organizations that participate in this process. They manage local IP address pools. So they receive address space from the regional Internet registry and they use that to run their own organizations or to allocate that down to organizations that are their customers. Now, the regional Internet registry system basically began in 1992, with the formation of the first regional Internet registry. The first RIR was RIPE NCC. It was formed out of a function called TERNA in Europe where operators were working together to communicate how they would operate the network, and they decided that they wanted to put together their own management system for address space inside their region. They started the first Internet registry. Then APNIC was started after that and then ARIN in 1997. And the two newest regions are LACNIC and AFRINIC. It was intended to be five regions going forward, basically one RIR per continent around the globe. We coordinate closely with IANA. What we do with the coordination with IANA mostly has to do with obtaining a resource from them so we can distribute it back to you in the region, our memberships are from the community. Our memberships select our executive councils, our Board of Trustees in the ARIN region and Advisory Council that works with the community to create policy proposals. You'll hear that in the presentation in a few minutes.
We're 100 percent community funded. We do not receive any funding from any special interest. It's all from members of our organizations and organizations who register resources with us. That's where we get all our funding to do our operations. We provide registration services, organization services, policy development services. I'm going to talk a little bit about those in the coming slides.
We're a membership organization. Membership is open. Any organization or individual may become a member of a regional Internet registry, in particular with ARIN. You do not have to be any special type of organization. Anyone can participate. We're broad based. We have people participating from the public sector, from the private sector, civil society, just all types of organizations. We have thousands of members.
We're community regulated. All policies are developed by the community in cooperation with a process we have called the Policy Development Process that we'll describe in a few minutes and with an Advisory Council that's selected by the membership. Our executive Board again is elected by the membership, and everything that we do is open and transparent. So everything about this meeting here today, for instance, is we're having a transcription being taken of the meeting. And that's going to be posted to our website as a record of this meeting once it's completed.
All of our policy development process is documented very well on the website. All of our policies and our Number Resource Policy Manual, everything is documented on the website, our financial statement, everything.
Registration services, one of the main things in the registration resources area we manage and coordinate resources, members that need for IP space they will come to ARIN and request a resource. The staff will use the resource policy manual that's created by you the community to take your request and evaluate it based on the rules and the criteria that are inside that document.
We also have directory services. Any time we make a registration to an organization, we document that registration in a database called the WHOIS database. This directory service is there so that you as an operator or you as the user can go and find out who is using a particular resource. You may find you need to contact someone from a network that is communicating with you and you want to find out how to reach them on the telephone or send an e-mail, you would be able to do that. And there are uses for these directory services.
The original intention for it was so that operators can contact each other when, contact their peers when they had issues with one another, so they could talk about how they're running their networks, but it's turned into much more than that.
The users for WHOIS nowadays are just general everyday users that might have a firewall program running on their computer and they want to find out the registrants IP address that's trying to gain access to the network for instance. Law enforcement agencies have a big use for the WHOIS directory services. If they're trying to track down crime or users on the Internet, they're able to do that using the WHOIS record service.
Governments do this. Organizations that are doing things that have to do with limiting their access to services inside their government or inside their organizations, for instance, might look in WHOIS to find out where a range of IP addresses are from. What country they're from.
These are the resource channels. IANA holds a pool of IP space. They can only allocate IP space to the five regional Internet registries. When the RIRs need additional space we go to the IANA to get that space. We basically hold a 12 to 18 month inventory of address space at any given time. When we get that space we allocate that space to Internet service providers or to consumers, end users.
If we assign address space to an end-user it is called an assignment, it's intended that that organization receive that resource and only use it for the operation of their network and that it not sub delegate that to any other organization. But we also make allocations to Internet service providers. They will receive that address space and they will sub delegate that space to other organizations. They may sub delegate it to consumers themselves or end users or to other Internet service providers that are downstream and customers of theirs.
And the chain continues. We also provider organization services as the IRR. We have public policy and members meetings, in this meeting we'll discuss policy over the next day. We also have public policy meetings twice per year. We'll have a much larger meeting where we have people come together and we discuss the policy proposals that are in front of the community, and we'll have members meetings. We also elect an executive Board and Advisory Council inside this organization through our membership.
And information publication and dissemination. That fact sheet on every topic you can think of that's related to the work that we do. If you have any questions about how something works, or you need information to help out inside your organization or inside a government, perhaps, you can go to our website, click on "education" and you'll find there that we have fact sheets. They're generally one page fact sheets. They're subject specific on IPv6 and IPv4 and routing where you can get information. You don't have to be a member to get the information; it's available to anyone who is interested. Just go to the website and a download goes there in PDF format. We provide education and training services. For instance, we do a lot of outreach inside the community to talk about things that are changing on the Internet and the way things are today, just so everyone knows how they can participate. We'll talk to people about the policy development process and encourage their participation.
One of the topics that we're discussing quite a bit nowadays is IPv6. You can find some education and training services on our website. You can go there. You will find that we've got some flash presentations that you can look at, and you can find some education services that way.
Or if you have a special need. If you have something going on inside your country or if you have something going on at a conference and you'd like ARIN to be there to participate, you can always contact us and we'll be glad to do that. I'm not going to go into too much detail about our policy development services, because we're going to have a presentation about that in a moment. But just at a high level, this is the process that we used to manage the Internet resource in the region. The Internet community at large uses the policy development process to define the policies that we use as an organization to distribute the resource back out to you. We maintain e-mail discussion lists for all the participation to take place, and also with the public policy meetings we described, and we publish our policy documents on our website.
And I'm going to pass right by this policy development slide and save that for Einar. But here's a summary basically for the IRR services that we provide, organization services and the policy development process. If you have any questions about these or if you would like us to participate at one of your meetings to talk about this we'd be glad to do that. One other organization I'd like to mention when I talk about the Internet governance resource, Internet number resources is the Number Resource Organization. Basically the Number Resource Organization is the five regional Internet registries working in cooperation to form the Number Resource Organization to protect the bottom up policy development process. It also acts as a single point of contact to all the RIRs. If you ever have a need to communicate with all the regional registries and there's a question about which one you might go to, you can contact the Number Resource Organization. There's a website there and e-mail address there. Any communication you send to the Number Resource Organization gets filtered out to all five of the regional Internet registries. With that, I thank you and I'm happy to take any questions you might have about this presentation. Thanks a lot.
MR. DAVIS: Thank you, Richard. Next up is Einar Bohlin to talk about the Internet process and importance of participation. One thing I'd like to remind folks of is that for all of you who have participated here and have not attended any of the ARIN meetings, you have questions, any comments regarding the slides that you see today, the content or ARIN's mission, please feel free to grab one of the Board of Trustees members who is here, ARIN staff, or AC members and ask them questions. Gather more information from them and we encourage you to do that. That's what we're here for. So without much further information, I'll pass it over to Einar.
MR. BOHLIN: Good morning I'm Einar Bohlin, I work in the Member Services Department. This is a Policy Development Process. I'll try to say "process" instead of PDP because we use a lot of acronyms, and being a policy analyst I use that one a lot of the times and a lot of other acronyms. I've been trying not to use them as much as I do.
So a high level look at the process. The Policy Development Process is the means for changing or making policy. When you talk about policy, we're referring to number policy. So the process essentially are the rules - I'm sorry, the policy is a rule for managing number resources, and by number resources we mean IP address like 184.108.40.206, IPv6 addresses, system numbers and directory services, the other things that Richard showed a moment ago on his slide.
And all right. At a real high level, the process starts with somebody identifying a need for a change. And by change, I mean creation of something new, exchanging something that exists or getting rid of something. So I think most folks are familiar with the concept of a suggestion box, right, a wooden box, usually, with a slit in the top and you write on a piece of paper a suggestion and drop it in. Well, a lot of times those suggestion boxes you don't get to see what happens to that piece of paper. Does somebody actually go in, open the box, take the paper out, read it, et cetera. The thing with the ARIN process is all of that is documented. Everything that happens to a proposal or a suggestion that comes in is clearly defined in the process. Step-by-step. And so at a high level, somebody identifies a need for a change. And the proposal that they write and submit is discussed on line and at meetings. The discussion is evaluated and if it's a good idea, ultimately it gets implemented. And the resulting implementation is evaluated, because sometimes there are unintended consequences, or you just learn things after you implement them.
And so we call the process a cycle because that evaluation can lead back to number one. So a history of the process: It's based on the IETF?? consensus model, and the policy development process was much less formal before 2001. In 2001, it was actually written out and put on the ARIN website, and we normally hand them out. I've got a handout for some folks. Thank you. And that's the flow chart we'll use it in a minute to walk the proposal through the process. But the process itself is documented. It was revised couple times most recently in January.
And what happened in January. These are the central changes that came out in the new version of the process. And instead of trying to explain them here, I'm going to touch upon these when we go through the flow chart.
So what's the purpose of the Policy Development Process? Of course, it's to create policy. It's to create good policy. Policy that's clear, technically sound and useful. There are some things that are out of scope for the policy process, such as defining ARIN's fees and a couple other things here. There are methods or means, rather, to suggest changes or suggest changes to do the things that are out of scope here. There are other means for doing those things.
The process has fundamental principles or truths. The first one is it's open. All policy is developed in an open forum where anyone can participate. That includes meetings, the Public Policy Mailing List. You don't have to be a member to participate in the process. And the process is open. We talk about how everything is documented on the website. The mailing list is archived. Meetings are transcribed and posted on the website. This meeting is transcribed and minutes will be produced for it.
And really what that means to me is that ARIN staff does not dictate policy to the community. The community figures out what policy it wants and brings that policy forth.
The community tells ARIN what to do. Philosophy; these are some beliefs. These things are in the process. I've kind of taken them out and made them a little bit smaller for the slide but policy statements must be clear, complete, and concise. And policy must be fair. Distribution of member resources is based on demonstrated need, and technical requirements. What that means is that policy has to account for how things actually work on the Internet.
And the policies must enable neutral and consistent resource management. I think that goes back to fairness, too. There's some really - there's some terms in the process. I'm going to touch on these as we go through that flow chart in a minute here.
Let me switch over and see if I can put the flow chart on the screen here. We won't go through the text as much as we'll go through the pictures. I'm going to walk through the flow chart and show you guys how a proposal or an idea for a policy change becomes policy. So, first of all, you have to type it up and send it in to ARIN. You can do that. There's a template. It's got three fundamental parts; Point of contact information, policy suggestion, and rationale. And you send that into ARIN. Staff gets it. We forward a copy to the Advisory Council. There are several members here today as we pointed out earlier. 15 AC members elected by the ARIN membership, and they have a really fundamental role in the policy development process. We're going to see the AC in here quite a bit. The AC gets a copy of the proposal and we put a copy of the proposal on the mailing list for the community.
And we take that proposal and we read it and we try to understand it. We went through the list a couple minutes ago. The first thing we're going to do with that is we usually meet a small group of folks that are interested at ARIN will start e-mailing each other and trying to figure out the text. Then we contact the person that submitted the proposal and we have a chat with them. Is our understanding of the proposal correct? Is this what you meant? Is this your intent? Maybe there's a term in the proposal we didn't understand so we want to find out what they mean by that word. We're not judging the proposal. We're just trying to understand it. And we take our understanding and our work with the submitter and we produce a report and within 10 days we give that report to the Advisory Council.
At this stage, the AC controls the proposal, and they basically have to decide what to do with them. There are many different options available to them. Fundamentally they can accept it to work on it or they can merge it with other things. They can split it up or if it's a bad idea they can get rid of it. You'll see on the flow chart there's a petition that goes off to the left. I'll talk about petitions later. We'll talk about how a proposal goes through the most often way.
The AC takes the proposal and makes some text that they think is it. This is draft policy text. This is a good idea and should become policy. It's called a draft policy at this stage. It turns the proposal into a draft policy, and they have to give it to staff for a implementation assessment and for legal review. And at this time ARIN looks at it differently from before. We look at it to see what's it going to take to make this thing happen.
And we produce that report. We go to legal for legal reasons, of course. We take that report and give it back to AC, and AC can fine tune the text if they desire. After it gets here, the AC decides they want this text to go out on the web. It will be discussed at a meeting. That's what it does. It goes on the list and it's out now for the community as a draft policy.
If it's out for at least 35 days, then it goes to a public policy meeting. So the purpose of being on the list and at the meeting is to give the community a chance to comment on the draft text and give their feedback to the AC. The AC can revise the text, make changes, updates, et cetera. They could even, as they learn somehow it's a bad idea, they can pull it back into the earlier process and work on it some more.
But 10 days before a meeting text is frozen. No more changes so that there's no confusion at public policy meetings. Go to page 2.
So it went to a meeting. After the meeting, the AC takes all the discussion from the list, from the meeting, and they take their own thoughts about the policy and they decide what to do with it again. And there's pretty much - the thing that they can do are essentially move it forward, keep it to work on it or get rid of it.
If they move it forward, they're going to send it to Last Call. And this is the last chance for the community to comment on it. Last Call is a minimum of 10 days. Sometimes AC can choose to do it longer, if it's - as they want. And so if it looks like the community supports the text, the AC supports the text, they send it to Last Call, got a chance for the community to give their input, the AC will meet in a formal meeting and they will decide after Last Call what to do with the draft text one final time. They'll revisit their earlier decision. If they think that this draft policy should be policy, they give it to the Board of Trustees.
They recommend that the Board adopt it. And the Board looks at the proposal, at the draft policy in a different manner from the previous, from the previous discussion. They look at it in terms of fiduciary risk, liability risk, conformity to law, development in accordance with the process, adherence to the ARIN articles of incorporation and bylaws. That's the level review that the Board does. As it passes the Board review, the Board says this draft policy is not policy.
At that step it goes back to ARIN staff and ARIN staff looks at it and we pretty much already figured out how long it's going to take to implement. But we'll make a commitment to implementing the policies in a certain time frame and we'll put that on the list. And when we do implement it, we take the policy, put it into a document called the Number Resource Policy Manual and publish that manual.
Let me go back to my presentation. There's some additional - so I went through these slides. Implementation, alright, I talked about this earlier. After a policy is implemented, there will be an evaluation. One of the things we do at meetings, we report on how adopted policies have turned out. In the handouts, there are some more pages to the flow chart. Essentially - and this is a big change from the last process, the Board made the Advisory Council be a development body not just evaluation body. They make the draft policy. In addition to that they expanded the process. At the stages in the process where it says petition, if someone is dissatisfied with an action by the AC, anyone may initiate a petition to try to move the item, the proposal or the draft policy forward in the process. So there's a threshold for the petition. If someone initiates a petition, it needs to be supported 10 different organizations in five days. If the petition fails, the AC's decision stands. If it's successful, the item is resurrected. It's moved forward without - around the AC.
There are also some special Board policy actions. And simple way to say it is that the Board may temporarily create or suspend policy. If they do choose to do this, the things they've done, for example, if they've created a policy, that policy is run through the process. And if the outcome of the process is that the policy is not adopted, then the policy is undone. And the Board has actually used this once. And it turns out to be a good time to talk about the participation part in the process. The Board suspended a policy once. So about, I guess it was in 2000, there was a policy that went through the process about web hosting, about using IP addresses extremely efficiently to - it was a policy that applied to web hosters, and the community said that web hosters should be really efficient with the use of their IP, that they should use the virtual hosting method, where you have many domains hosted on a single IP address. No more one website or domain per one IP. That's not efficient.
So a proposal came out. It went to the community. The community that was participating agreed to it. It was adopted, and unfortunately the segment of the community that was the web hosters weren't paying very close attention. And when they came to ARIN to request IP space, ARIN had to say to them we evaluated their utilization and said you're not using your IPs very efficiently according to policy.
And they told - they gave technical reasons. They said this is crazy. You can't do this to us. They gave technical reasons why that was true, why they needed to do and in certain cases one-for-one hosting, one IP domain hosting. A lot of web hosters signed up on the Public Policy Mailing List and spoke about this policy and spoke against it and the Board elected to suspend that policy and create a proposal, a proposal was created to do away with that policy. And sure enough a lot of web hosters came to the next public policy meeting. That public policy was revoked and ever since that day there's pretty good participation by the web hosters in the community.
So it pays to participate. I mentioned the Number Resource Policy Manual. This is a single document that has all of ARIN's number policy. And in addition to the document, there's a change log which shows there's been about 90 policies that have gone through the system. About half have been adopted and have rejected or abandoned. You go to the change log and since the manual was created, you can see how policy has gone into that document.
And for the most part the manual doesn't change unless a policy is adopted. We've already talked about - these are the proposals and policies under discussion at this meeting. The stage we're in right now for these - and we'll be discussing these tomorrow - is that the AC is crafting, they're crafting text for all of these things and we anticipate seeing that text on the list - actually, the next step is the AC does turn these into draft policies; they'll give it to us for staff and legal assessment. And we expect or anticipate seeing that text within a month. So this is a really good time for the AC to get feedback from you guys.
And to help you understand the proposals and draft policies, tomorrow when we talk about them, we're going to give you a really quick summary of what the item is. But we've also - we're going to have at the back the text of all these five items for you guys to read. If you could, read them tonight before you come in tomorrow, that would be super.
I think that's it. Thank you.
MR. DAVIS: Any questions for Einar?
MR. CASSIMIRE: Nigel Cassimire, CTU. Earlier in the process, when the Advisory Council seeks control of the proposal, after the staff has reviewed it for understanding and so on, I'm thinking in the process of the Advisory Council going through its review of the proposal, to what extent is there always or any input from the proposal, the author of the initial proposal at that stage?
MR. BOHLIN: That's an excellent question. The AC has traditionally worked very closely with the submitters, the originators. And while it's not in the process, they discussed it at their last meeting and they're committed to working with that person and keeping them included in their work.
But the AC does control the text at that point. The submitter is a person that can potentially petition. So if they don't like the work that the AC has done, the person that submitted the proposal can go, can use the petition process to try to go around them. Good question. Thank you.
MR. DAVIS: Thank you, Einar.
MR. DAVIS: All right. Next up we have Leslie for two back-to-back proposals. She's first going to do the Internet resource status report and then that will be followed by a description of existing ARIN number resource policy. Leslie.
MS. NOBILE: I'm actually switching the order just a bit, because since we're talking about policy, I should probably continue in that vein and talk about current ARIN policies and how to qualify for IP address space and the numbers themselves. So that's what I'm going to do.
Anyway, there's lots of policies in ARIN's Number Resource Policy Manual. But I'll go over the main ones on how to qualify for IPv4, IPv6 address space and the autonomous system numbers. Fortunately, Richard already discussed terms and told you what allocating and assigning is. So I don't have to go over there. But multi-home is another one we'll mention in the policy. Basically the definition is connectivity to more than one ISP or pier. And the same prefix has to be announced by at least two of them. So there is actually a multi-home policy that we'll talk about.
So here's the main, the two main ways to qualify for IPv4 address space. This is the initial allocations to ISPs. There's a policy criteria. You have to be using a/20 of address space to get a /20 you have to have a /16 assigned to your upstream IP. Efficiently utilized. Doesn't have to be configured can have a 16, 23, 24, whatever total/20 or 16,/24. Minimum allocation, there's a/20 and we're looking at a three-month need. There's the multi-home policy. So you have to be multi-home, connected to two up streams or piers. You have to have a/23 worth of IPv4 space and upstream utilizing it efficiently. Have to be multi-home or intend to multi-home. You have to agree to renumber out of your upstream address space so the next time come we'll check to see you upstreamed and returned it to them. The minimum application and multi-home is/22 and we're looking at a three month need.
So there's a special policy in the Caribbean region that was brought up last year, I believe the community found there was a need in the Caribbean region that wasn't being met by the standard IPv4 address policies. So there's a new policy called the "Minimum Allocation in the Caribbean region". The criteria - it was actually implemented just about a month ago. We only had one person qualify just last week under this policy, our first Caribbean ISP qualified with them. That's good. That's going to be used, I'm sure. It applies to ISPs only, not? end-users. The minimum allocation size is a /22. Standard allocation under v4 is/20. In Caribbean region it's /22. Single home organizations have to be using a /22. It has to be reassigned from an upstream and efficiently utilized in order to get a /22. If you're multi-home you have to have a/23 reassigned from an upstream ISP and be utilizing it efficiently.
So that's a brand new policy.
And another - this is IPv4 additional allocations to ISPs, still talking ISPs if they come back want additional space they have to have utilized 80 percent of their most recent allocation, and ARIN staff will check that, and 100 percent of all previous allocations.
If you qualified under the multi-home policy you would have had to have returned your upstream provider. You have to show your reassignment information in a database; whether that's SWIP in the ARIN WHOIS database, or your own RWhois database, or a spreadsheet. We'll take a spreadsheet for the smaller reassignment /29, /30, /32s. It's again additional allocations based on extreme need, however we'll look at a 12-month need if the subscriber has been an ARIN member for longer than one year.
So now we're moving from ISPs to end-user policies. IPv4 initial assignments to end-users; standard policy says you have to show 25 percent utilization of what you're asking for. So if you're coming in asking for a /20, you have to show that you're going to use 25 percent of it right now immediately and you have to have a plan that you show to us for using 50 percent of that allocation within the next year. So it's really based on a 12-month need for end-users.
The minimum allocation is a /20. The multi-home policy for end-users, again, you have to have multi-home to intend multi-home show the 25 percent utilization, 50 percent within a year, and again based on the minimum need it's a /22 under the multi-home policy.
So this is additional assignments to end-users. End-users do occasionally come back. End-users are generally universities, corporate enterprises. They're just not ISPs. So if you do come back as an end-user the criteria says you have to show 80 percent efficient utilization of all previous assignments you've received from ARIN and we're looking at a 12 month need again and it's the 25 percent immediate utilization, 50 percent within one year.
So there's a policy called immediate need that not many people know about. A lot of times organizations that are starting a new service or product will have used this, because they don't have any previous IP address space assigned to them for this particular service. So they'll come in under immediate need. What you have to do is show justification that you're going to use this address space within 30 days, all of the address space within 30 days, kind of a tough criteria. These are examples of what we'll ask for to show the justification for the immediate need; signed customer contracts, network topology plan, deployment schedule, equipment receipts, and connectivity contracts. The policy says a /16 is the largest block that can be issued under this particular policy.
There's a micro-allocation policy. Some of you in the Caribbean, I show this because some run gTLDs, this is a way to qualify for space if you're running gTLD. The criteria you have to be a critical Internet infrastructure provider. The blurb below tells you what is considered to be critical Internet infrastructure, which is public exchange points, coordinated service providers. The exchange operator has a different criterion, have to provide justification including the policy the location of the exchange points and the Autonomous System number and contact information for at least two other participants in the exchange point.
The allocation size under the micro-allocation is a/24, v4 or/48 in IPv6.
So we'll move to IPv6 policy and this is what's driving with the initial allocation to ISPs.
The criterion says you have to be an LIR. That's a term we don't typically use in our region. It's used in some of the other regions. It's Local Internet registry. It's the same as what would be considered an ISP. You have to be an ISP; you can't be an end-site. You have to provide and plan to provide to show IPv6 connectivity to organizations and route the aggregate prefix and you have to plan to make at least 200 assignments to customers. And, again, we'll ask for this. We'll ask for who these customers are. Within five years. Or be a well known ISP in the ARIN region and the well known ISP isn't really defined in the policy, the way we've defined it is if you've done an ISP in the ARIN region coming to ARIN to resources for at least one year, we consider you have to be a known ISP, a well known ISP in the region.
So that's an either or. 200 customers or be a well known ISP. Minimum allocation size is a /32. You can justify larger if you can provide technical justification. What we'll typically look at is a number of existing IPv4 users in your network and an organization's infrastructure to determine - there's a subsequent allocation to ISPs. This is a complicated one. So policy says that ISP has to achieve acceptable utilization of its allocated space. It's measured in terms of /56 assignments, reassignments using something called the HD ratio, the host density ratio, and I've referred you to the RFP if you want to know more about it you can read it. It's tough to explain. Suffice it to say it's measured at .94 in an HD ratio. But I put an example. So a /32 has over 60 million /56s, if you looked at this chart, the HD ratio, which is in that RFP, by the way, roughly six million /56s would have to have been assigned in order to request more address space from ARIN, more v6 address space. And this additional is based on a two-year need.
So there's also a policy in the ARIN region for IPv6 end- users. It says you cannot be an IPv6 ISP and you have to qualify for an IPv4 assignment or allocation from ARIN under some current IPv4 policy that's currently in effect. So basically you have to be an end-user and you have to be able to qualify for v4 before we'll give you v6. That's really what that says. The initial assignment size is much smaller than for an IFP it's smaller. The next is you have to be a multi-home site or intend a multi-home or have a unique routing policy. Most people qualify because they're multi-home. That's how almost everyone gets theirs. If you need assistance I've put up some e-mail addresses, Registration Services, that's my department. We issue all the IP number resources. So we have a 24-hour. Not 24-hour, 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Help Desk and we have the hostmaster e-mail, if you have questions e-mail us. It could be linked to the Number Resource Manual but I bet it's wrong because we just put up a new website today so it may be wrong. There's a quick guide requesting resources, a cheat sheet that helps you through the process, a simplified way of reading policies.
So that's all I have. Are there any questions on this particular presentation? No? I'll move on. Can I ask you guys a question before I end this one? How many have actually come to ARIN for IP resources previously? Have any of you come and applied? You have. Okay.
MS. NOBILE: So these are the joint statistics. This is a way of looking at all five of the Internet registries, all of our resource allocations and assignments over the 10 years. It's current as of December 31st, 2008, and it shows all five RIRs and assignments. The first slide is the current status of the total IP space pool. There's 258 /8 in total in the IPv4 address range. We've broken it out here.
If you look at the top. I'll start with the central registry. That was space that was issued prior to the existence of the RIRs. This is all done under U.S. government contract in the early days, and 91 /8s were issued in those early days. Much of it was issued within the United States and some in Europe, because the early development of the Internet was here in the U.S. So a lot of those 91 /eights are issued within our region.
If you go to the right, not available, 35 /8s, that is reserved by the technical community for special purpose. I've broken out what that special purpose is. The 35 /8 that IANA will never be able to issue to the RIRs is being held for technical reasons. If you look down IANA reserve says there's 34 /8s remaining out of the 256 /8s in the total pool there's only 34 remaining. That number just went down to 32 because IANA issued two new /8 to the RIPE NCC. There's actually 32 left, And then it's gone. Moving left is the RIRs. The RIRs in total got them issued by IANA.
Now we're looking at the side-by-side format. These are the growth trends going back as far as 1999, and you can see early on we were issuing all five of the RIRs, much less v4 address space. However, in the last two, three years we've seen a real increase in all of the regions, particularly in the APNIC region. This past year APNIC issued the highest number ever. So the growth is clearly. And before it's clearly in the Asia-Pacific region and it's my understanding that much of it is coming from China. The demand is in China right now.
So we're looking at this. This is just the cumulative total. And I apologize, that date is wrong. It says January '99, but June 2008. I missed that one. It's on three slides bear with me. It's actually through December of 2008. And this is cumulative totals of what each of the RIRs have issued in the past 10 years; so RIPE has issued 22, and APNIC 24, AFRINIC 45, et cetera et cetera.
So we're looking at the ASN assignments. The two RIRs issuing most of the ASNs are RIPE NCC and ARIN, where ARIN numbers have gone down quite a bit and pretty much flat lined, the RIPE NCC has continued, rather, issuing quite a few ASNs in their region at this point. Again cumulative total, shows ARIN and RIPE with most of it issued to customers. Okay. The complicated slide, we're going to work from left to right. The gray circle, /0. That's the entire IPv6 address space. A /3 has been carved out; that's the space that the IANA will issue to the IRR. 506 /12 that IANA is holding that they will issue to RIRs for their customers.
So there's a little tiny blue slice there. IANA has issued each one of the RIRs a single /12. They did that back in October of 2006. You can see it right there. If you look further down at the /12, the chart below is actually measured in /23s. The old allocation size from IANA is /23; that's how we've measured things. So you can see the basic take-away on this one is RIPE NCC has issued more IPv6 address space any of the RIRs have issued. Of all the space they've issued, more than half has been issued in the RIPE NCC, which is Europe, Russia and the Middle East.
I think much of the growth is in Europe right now. So here's the resource allocations from the RIR slice, and again just looking at the growth trends very small early on. It was the first time we issued that space. Very slow, not huge uptake except in the RIPE region, who is in green. Can you see they've issued a ton of space this past year in their region? The rest of us - in the ARIN, not increased growth at this point.
Okay. So we were talking in terms of total allocations, when you looked at total allocations, the number of allocations that RIPE issued is 1200, AFRINIC 65, APNIC 453, and ARIN 496. So that's just allocations, but if you're looking in terms of /32s, which is the minimum allocation side, the number changes drastically, and you'll see that RIPE has issued to their customers. What that means is that RIPE, ARIN, and APNIC have all issued allocations larger than /32 to customers. Some of us have issued /26s, /22s, in the RIPE region I think there's been a /19 issued. So that accounts for those number of /32s.
This is just linked to the RIR sites and the historical is on IANA, that's where the history is for all of these assignments. That's a good page to check.
And that is all that I have. Are there questions on any of this? Okay. Thank you very much.
MR. DAVIS: All right. Thank you, Leslie. We're going to move now to open discussion, and I'm going to turn this over to ARIN chairman, Board of trustees, John Curran, to lead. John.
MR. CURRAN: Thank you. I'm John Curran, chairman of the Board of Trustees of ARIN. We make it an important part of our meetings to ensure that there's open forum where people can speak about the organization or on particular policies or to address the need that they see that perhaps ARIN isn't focused on. So this is that section. You'll have a few of them throughout the course of this meeting.
And we refer to it as the open microphone. At this point, anyone who has a question about ARIN, its policies, feel free to come up to the microphone. Don't be shy, folks. It's a small room. You must have questions.
Well, we'll have another chance later on. I'd like to thank everyone. I'll turn it back over to Nate for lunch logistics.
MR. DAVIS: We are a little ahead of schedule this morning. So before we break, I want to mention one of the key events for tomorrow, in addition to or excuse me one of the key events tomorrow is actually the ARIN IPv6 event. So in preparation for that I want to call Mark Kosters up he wanted to make a couple of announcements so we can ensure success for tomorrow when we conduct that session. So here's Mark. And Mark is ARIN's Chief Technology Officer.
MR. KOSTERS: Thanks, Nate. So one of the things we're going to do tomorrow is we're going to do some on hands work on IPv6. So I noticed a few of you don't have laptops with you. If you do, I encourage you to get it from your office. And we'll sit down with you and work with you in getting v6 up and show you how easy it is. And how you can actually take this - our goal is to do the experiment we're going to do tomorrow; you can take this and replicate it back at your office or your home. But to do so, it would be best if you bring a laptop along so we can do this on hands. Pete Toscano in the back, and I will help you setting up the box. The only thing you will need is you'll need administrative rights on your box so we can go ahead and make changes on doing the v6 back. To that end I have sort of an inventory, to give you guys some exercise. And that is, okay, so how many of you are running Windows XP on your laptop? Okay. How many are running vista? Alright. MacOS? Okay. And Linux? Excellent. Excellent.
SPEAKER: Go Linux.
MR. KOSTERS: You're looking like you're a MacOS guy, what's the deal. It's easier to run MacOS on this. Just prepare yourselves and if you have other people who are showing up tomorrow that you know, please pass on the word to them to bring their laptops with them as well, because again, it's one thing to actually listen. It's another thing to actually be doing it. So please bring them. Thanks.
MR. DAVIS: All right. Thanks, Mark.
MR. CURRAN: We're just working on agenda logistics. Excuse us a second. We're going to change the meeting around here slightly as we're running well ahead of schedule.
MR. DAVIS: What we're going to do, rather than have a two hour lunch break, we're going to go ahead and advance some of the presentations we have for this afternoon and knock those out. And then break for lunch. We're going to be calling Richard Jimmerson up here to, based on his presentation. In preparation for the afternoon session with the CTU and IPv6 transition, Richard's going to provide us two presentations here which will lead into that, and be a nice segue following lunch for the CTU. So I'll turn it over to Richard to begin this presentation on IPv6 background.