Introduction to ARIN's Database
Perhaps ARIN’s best-known function within the Internet community is the Whois directory service. Whois is driven by a large relational database with six classes of objects, all of which interconnect to create meaningful searchable information.
Point of Contact records (POCs) are standalone objects that define a person, their mailing address, and their contact information, and states any organizations or resources that the point of contact has authority over. POCs can also define role accounts like noc@, abuse@, etc. An individual’s area of responsibility is defined by how their POC is connected to an organization or the resources of an organization.
Note: POCs tied to an organization are automatically inherited by any resource that organization has authority over. There is no need to create multiple POCs to accomplish this or to list the same POC on both an Organization and its resources.
Admin POC (Mandatory)
The Administrative (Admin) POC provides oversight for an Org ID and all resources it has authority over, and may be an individual or a role account. An Admin POC can only be connected directly to an Org ID, and there can be only one per Org ID. The Admin POC is permitted to update the Org ID, manage, update, and request resources, as well as manage reverse delegations.
The Technical POC (Tech POC) provides the day-to-day management of a resource, either through the organization to which that resource belongs, or its authority over the resource directly.
Organizational Tech POC (Mandatory)
The Organizational Tech POC is permitted to update the Org ID, manage, update, and request resources, as well as manage reverse delegations, and may be an individual or a role account.
Resource Tech POC
A Tech POC may have authority over a resource, such as an allocation of IP address space or an Autonomous System Number (ASN), and may be an individual or a role account. This authority may be established by the Admin, Tech or Resource Tech POC for that resource.
The Resource Tech can change the attributes of a resource, such as the resource name and the public comments displayed in Whois, and can associate Abuse, NOC, or other Tech POCs with a resource. Depending on the type of resource, the Resource Tech can specify nameservers or delegation signer (DS) records. Specifying a Resource Tech POC does not prevent the Organizational Tech POC from also making changes.
Abuse POC (Mandatory)
The Abuse POC acts as a contact for the reporting and resolution of network abuse issues, and may be an individual or role account. Multiple Abuse POCs may be specified per organization. This type of POC is not permitted to make any database changes.
Resource Abuse POC
The Abuse POC acts as a contact for the reporting and resolution of network abuse issues, and may be an individual or role account. Multiple Abuse POCs may be specified per resource. This type of POC is not permitted to make any database changes.
NOC POC (Optional)
The Network Operation Center (NOC) POC serves as a contact for network operation issues, and may be an individual or a role account. Multiple NOC POCs may be specified per organization. This type of POC is not permitted to make any database changes, and is optional.
Resource NOC POC
The Network Operation Center (NOC) POC serves as a contact for network operation issues, and may be an individual or a role account. Multiple NOC POCs may be specified per resource. This type of POC is not permitted to make any database changes, and is optional.
Voting Contacts are the individuals eligible to vote in elections for the ARIN Board of Trustees and Advisory Council on behalf of an ARIN member organization. Voting Contacts are mandatory for Member Organizations only. The Voting Contact must be registered with a personalized email; role accounts are not permitted. The Voting Contact's email must also include the domain of the organization name on record. Voting Contacts are not searchable in Whois, but are contained within ARIN’s database.
An Org ID is a unique identifier representing an organization that is registered in the ARIN database. This identifier shows that entity’s name, its physical address, and any Points of Contact (POCs) that have authority over it. In addition, all Internet number resources directly assigned or allocated from ARIN, as well as any downstream resources, must be registered to the appropriate Org ID. This means you must establish an Org ID before requesting resources. An entity may maintain multiple Org IDs for different accounts, or it may consolidate all of its resources under a single Org ID. For each Org ID, there must be at least one Admin, Tech and Abuse POC with authority over it. NOC POCs are optional.
Customers are organizations associated ARIN through a provider organization. Customers are searchable within Whois just as ORGs are, but may only have authority over a single network registration that is a simple reassignment.
Network records (NETs) define a range of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and show the organizations and POCs with authority over them. There are four main types of resource records within the database:
- Direct Allocation: IP address space allocated directly from ARIN to an organization. The organization may reallocate or reassign that space to downstream customers.
- Direct Assignment: IP address space assigned directly from ARIN to an organization for its own exclusive use.
- Reallocation: IP address space allocated from an organization (the upstream) to a downstream customer. The downstream customer may reallocate or reassign that space further.
- Reassignment: IP address space assigned from an organization (the upstream) to a downstream customer for its own exclusive use.
Detailed Reassignment: Address space assigned to a customer who may need to:
- subdelegate the addresses to their own customers maintain their own in-addr.arpa delegation
- display their own point of contact (POC) information
Autonomous System Numbers, or ASNs, represent Autonomous Systems: networks or connected groups of networks that adhere to a single unique routing policy that differs from the routing policies of their border peers. An ASN record, much like a NET, displays the specific Autonomous System Number and the ORG with authority over it.
Delegations are entries that relate IP addresses to domain names using the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. Delegations contain the information necessary for Reverse DNS, including the associated nameservers, and DNS Delegation Signer (DS Record) information. Unlike the other objects, delegations are not given a handle. They are searched for within Whois using a delegation name, like 0.192.in-addr.arpa.